Home > Link, Microsoft SQL Server, MSBI, Optimization, Query, Script, SQL Mentalist, SQL PraRup, SQL Query, SQL Tricks, Technology,, Vishal Pawar > BISQL – Laymen to SQL Developer # 15 – Database Core Concepts and Applications #3 – Classification and Criterion of Database Management Systems

BISQL – Laymen to SQL Developer # 15 – Database Core Concepts and Applications #3 – Classification and Criterion of Database Management Systems

Hi Folks,

This post is part of Series Database Management Systems

Currently running topic for this series is listed as below :

Series of Database Management Systems

>>Chapter 1 : DBMS [Database Management Systems]

>>Chapter 2 : Database Core Concepts and  Applications<You are Here>

Continuing from my previous post on this series, If you have missed any link please visit link below

We are going to Cover the Following Points in this article

  • Classification and Criterion of Database Management Systems

Classification and Criterion of Database Management Systems

Several criteria are normally used to classify DBMS.

A. Based on Data model

B. Based on number of users

C. Based on number of sites.

A. Based on Data model: It specifies a particular mechanism for data storage and retrieval. The primary difference between the different database models lies in the methods of expressing relationships and constraints among the data elements. Five database models are discussed here:

1. Hierarchical Model: It is one of the oldest database models [1950s], and represents data as hierarchical tree structures.

2. Network Model: It represents data as record types, and has an ability to handle many-to-many relationships.

3. Relational Model: Relational models stores data in the form of a table. Data is interrelated; relationships link rows from two tables. End-users need not know about physical data storage details. So it is conceptually simple.

A relational database is data driven, not design driven. It is designed once, and the data changes over time without affecting the applications. Data is stored once, so maintaining consistency among all applications is easier.

The presence of powerful query language (SQL) is one of the main reasons for the immense popularity of the relational database model; it allows the user to specify what must be done, without specifying how it must be done. A Relational model is based on mathematical theory, whose principles were laid down by Dr. E. F. Codd. The relational model uses a collection of tables to represent both data and the relationships among those data. ‘Codd’ provides a set of 12 rules, which qualify a database product as relational.

4. Object Oriented model: It is based on a collection of objects.

Object oriented database manages objects, and is suited for multimedia applications as well as data with complex relationships that are difficult to model and process in a relational DBMS. Object Oriented Data Base Management System [OODBMS] holds data, text, pictures, voice and video.

OODBMS contains ‘values stored in instance variables and methods or functions which controls the behavior of the variables.

OOP concepts such as inheritance, polymorphism and dynamic binding features improve productivity.

5. Object-relational model: It is a combination of both objects oriented concepts and relational concepts. It combines the advantages of modern object oriented programming languages, which provide facility for the users to define new data type and functions of their own. Relational database is not only useful for storing data, but also provides business rules that are applied to the data. Associating rules with data makes the data more active, enabling the database system to perform automatic validity checks to automate many business procedures. It supports specialized applications such as image retrieval, searching, multimedia, etc.

Eg. 1: IBM’s DB2 universal server, oracle 8 and SQL server 7 and so on.

B. Based on number of users: It is based on number of users supported by the system. Single user system supports only one user at a time and multi-user system supports multiple users concurrently.

C. Based on number of sites: A DBMS is centralized if the data is stored

at a single computer site. A DBMS is distributed if the data and DBMS software are distributed over many sites, connected by a computer network.

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